A high-performance microarchitecture with hardware-programmable functional units

R. Razdan and M. D. Smith
  • Published: International Symposium on Microarchitecture (MICRO), 1994
  • DOI: 10.1145/192724.192749
  • Citations in Google Scholar: 492

Nominated by: Andre DeHon

This was the first published paper to evaluate adding FPGA-logic as an on-chip accelerator in a processor. Specifically, they considered adding a modest amount of purely combinational FPGA logic as a programmable functional unit (PFU) in a superscalar processor. The solution provided an ISA instruction to call out the custom operation over a space of programmable functions and included ``demand-paging'' of the PFU functions. The work was complete, including a compiler that automatically extracted PFU functions from the C code. The paper includes quantitative analysis showing modest (mostly 10-15%) speedups on the SPECInt92 suite with one application achieving almost a 2x speedup.

Shortly after this paper we had many high-profile integrated FPGA accelerators (GARP, Chimera, OneChip) with more sophisticated PFUs. Later we saw a large field on research on extracting custom instructions for these PFU-like accelerators or for creating custom instructions for ASIPs (e.g. Tensillica). Today, on-chip accelerators are common, as are SoCs combining FPGAs and processors and vendor-supported tools to compile FPGA-accelerators from C. This was one of the pioneering works that suggested a concrete, scalable PFU model and demonstrated its early promise, even in a minimal form.

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